Flour milling and cooking bread in ovens are as old as human being. Development in civilization has yield a development in oven technology, too. In villages and small towns, people generally produce their own bread in their small, private ovens. They used traditional milling to obtain flour. When cities have been enlarged, bread cooking style has also started to change. People start to buy bread produced by bread factories.
Ovens are the most important devices of bakery production. Due to the industrialization of bakery equipment, the number of bakery production companies has increased. Especially large companies that produce home furnaces have begun to take place in the industrial furnace market. This has led to a tough competition in the sector. Small firms have tried to protect their market shares with price advantage in this market but they have not been able to sustain it and have started to adapt their technology to the new situation of the market. Here, lowering price alone is not enough; especially the quality of the price has become more prominent in the bakery sector. Ease of use, energy efficiency, and fewer failures are factors that are effective for deciding which oven to purchase. Brands with widespread service network have also considerable advantages over their competitors.
The ovens used in the sector vary. Deck ovens and rotary oven types are the most commonly used oven types in the industry. Apart from these, there are also different types of ovens produced for special purposes.
Deck ovens have been developed for increasing the cooking capacity in small areas. The trays are placed on top of each other so that more bakery output can be obtained in the same area. Heat is produced under the furnace and distributed to all sides of the oven by irradiation and contact, so that the heat distribution in the furnace is uniform, that is, the heat is the same at each point. Many companies provide separate control of each tray, allowing different cooking forms in different trays at the same time. Even when the product to be cooked is low, heating of unused trays can be turned off, thereby preventing unnecessary energy loss.
In rotary ovens, products to be cooked are rotated at a constant speed during the cooking time in the oven; So that all sides can be cooked equally. Techniques have been developed to ensure that the inside of the oven is well heated and the humidity is uniformly distributed. Some ovens can also give designs and textures to products when they are cooked.